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The early phase of the strategic design research process is vital for obtaining a rich understanding of the challenge space and exploring the lived experiences of diverse individuals.

The participant recruitment process is inclusive and fosters sense-making, imagination, and orientation to identify participants who can provide valuable insights into the challenge space. By leveraging the network of stakeholders and people within organizations and communities, this process ensures ethical recruitment practices and defined relationships and sets the stage for successful interviews.


The primary goal of the inclusive participant recruitment process is to identify and engage a diverse range of participants who can contribute meaningfully to the design research. In addition, this process aims to create an environment where participants feel safe, welcomed, and valued for their unique perspectives, leading to richer data and more effective solutions for the challenge. The final objective is to book interviews with participants and set the basis of the participant management process.

Five lenses in to recruitment

  1. The Circle of Wisdom: Engaging participants is like forming a circle of wisdom, where each individual brings their unique knowledge and experiences. Just as each point on the circle contributes to its strength and completeness, every participant’s input enriches the collective wisdom of the research process.
  2. The Kaleidoscope of Perspectives: Participant engagement can be compared to peering through a kaleidoscope. Each participant’s perspective represents a different colorful shard, and as researchers rotate the kaleidoscope, these perspectives blend and transform, revealing new patterns and insights.
  3. The Ecosystem of Ideas: Imagine participant engagement as cultivating an ecosystem of ideas. Each participant represents a unique species, and as researchers listen to their perspectives and insights, they nurture an environment where diverse ideas can thrive and interact, leading to a richer understanding of the research topic.
  4. The Dance of Emergence: Participant engagement can be likened to a dance of emergence, where researchers and participants engage in a dynamic interplay of ideas and perspectives. Like skilled dancers, they navigate the space between certainty and uncertainty, exploring and co-creating new insights that emerge from the collective dance.
  5. The Tapestry of Narratives: Visualize participant engagement as weaving a tapestry of narratives. Each participant’s story is a thread that, when woven together, creates a rich and textured tapestry of understanding. Researchers carefully listen and interweave these narratives to gain a holistic and multi-dimensional view of the research challenge.

These analogies and metaphors provide vivid imagery and evoke the essence of participant engagement in the research process. They highlight the interconnectedness of perspectives, the importance of active listening and collaboration, and the emergence of new insights through the collective effort of researchers and participants.


Participant recruitment for research studies is a systematic process that involves several steps. These steps ensure that the participants chosen for the study align with the research objectives and that they provide informed consent to participate. Here is a general outline of the participant recruitment process:

  1. Define the Target Population: The first step in participant recruitment is defining your study’s target population. This population should be directly related to your research question and objectives. For instance, if your research aims to understand remote workers’ experiences during the pandemic, your target population would be individuals working remotely during this period.
  2. Develop Recruitment Strategies: You must develop strategies for reaching potential participants based on your target population. This could involve advertising through social media, online forums, newsletters, and working with a fixer or local community.
  3. Screening: After potential participants express interest in your study, you must screen them to ensure they meet the study’s criteria. This might involve asking them about their demographics, experiences, or attitudes.
  4. Informed Consent: If a participant meets the study’s criteria, the next step is to provide them with an informed consent form. This document should explain the purpose of the research, what participation involves, any potential risks or benefits, and how their privacy will be protected. Participants should be able to ask any questions before signing the form.
  5. Scheduling: Once a participant has informed consent, you must schedule a time for their participation. Depending on your research design, this might involve setting up an interview, focus group, or observation.
  6. Follow-Up: After participants have participated in your study, following up with them is essential. This could involve summarising the research findings, thanking them for their time, or addressing any questions or concerns.


A “fixer” is a term used to describe a person who assists researchers, journalists, and others in accessing resources, individuals, and communities essential to their work. Fixers are particularly useful when working in unfamiliar environments or with hard-to-reach populations. They often have extensive knowledge of the local culture, language, and social networks. They can facilitate the process of participant recruitment in several ways.

Here are some roles that a fixer may play in participant recruitment:

  1. Cultural Mediator: Fixers can help researchers navigate cultural nuances and local customs essential to respectful and effective participant recruitment. They can advise on appropriate ways to approach potential participants and help to avoid cultural missteps.
  2. Community Connector: With their local knowledge and networks, fixers can help researchers identify and connect with potential participants. They can facilitate introductions and build trust between researchers and local communities.
  3. Logistical Coordinator: Fixers can help to organize meetings, focus groups, or interviews. They may handle logistical details such as location scouting, appointment times, and transportation.
  4. Translator/Interpreter: If there is a language barrier between the researchers and the potential participants, fixers can serve as translators or interpreters, facilitating precise and effective communication.
  5. Advisor: Fixers can provide valuable insights about the local context and advise on the feasibility and appropriateness of recruitment strategies.
  6. Safety Guide: In some cases, fixers help ensure the safety of the research team in potentially dangerous or unstable locations.


In qualitative research and ethnography, the recruitment of participants is crucial. The chosen participants often deeply influence the data collected and the study’s results. Here are some standard recruitment methods used:

  1. Purposive Sampling: Also known as judgmental or selective sampling, this method involves deliberately selecting individuals with specific characteristics or experiences to provide in-depth information for the research. For example, suppose you are studying teachers’ experiences during the pandemic. In that case, you might specifically recruit teachers who have been teaching online.
  2. Snowball Sampling: This method involves the recruitment of participants through existing participants. Once a few key individuals have been identified, they refer the researcher to other potential participants. This method can be beneficial when studying hard-to-reach or specific communities.
  3. Convenience Sampling: This involves recruiting readily available and willing participants to participate in the study. While convenient, this method might lead to a less diverse sample, potentially limiting the study’s generalizability.
  4. Quota Sampling: In quota sampling, the researcher identifies subsets of the population of interest and then recruits a specific number of participants from each subset. This method allows the researcher to ensure that the sample is representative of specific population characteristics.
  5. Theoretical Sampling: This method is standard in grounded theory research. Participants are selected based on the research’s emerging findings. The aim is to recruit participants who can help to explore, confirm, or disconfirm the developing theory.

Ethical recruitment

Participant recruitment for qualitative and ethnographic research must be conducted ethically. Following ethical guidelines ensures the protection and respect of participants’ rights, dignity, and well-being. Here are some of the key ethical guidelines for participant recruitment in such research:

  1. Informed Consent: Potential participants should be provided with a comprehensive understanding of the research, including its purpose, methods, potential risks, benefits, and their rights (including the right to withdraw at any time without penalty). They should then voluntarily provide consent to participate.
  2. Confidentiality and Privacy: Researchers must ensure that all collected data will be kept confidential and that participants’ identities will be protected, content anonymized unless explicit consent is given.
  3. Transparency: Researchers should be transparent about their relationship with participants, their role in the study, and the potential use of the research findings.
  4. No Coercion: Participation must be entirely voluntary and free from any coercion or undue influence. Participants should not be manipulated or pressured into partaking in the study.
  5. Respect for Vulnerable Populations: Extra care should be taken when recruiting participants from vulnerable populations (e.g., minors, pregnant women, elderly individuals, people with disabilities, or economically disadvantaged people). This includes ensuring informed consent and understanding, and minimizing any potential risks.
  6. Risk-Benefit Assessment: In some cases, researchers should can a risk-benefit assessment before the study begins to ensure that the potential benefits outweigh any possible risks or harm to the participants.

Approach and mindset

As a guiding principle it is recommended for those navigating the realm of participant engagement and recruitment, to underscore the importance of embracing reciprocity and co-creation.

Researchers need to shift from a transactional mindset, where participants are simply sources of information, towards a transformational approach that acknowledges participants as valuable co-creators in the research journey. This is more than an ethical stance; it’s a powerful means to enrich research outcomes.

Participant engagement should extend beyond data collection to collaborative sense-making and co-creation. This principle encourages a deeper involvement, where participants aren’t merely sharing experiences, but actively participating in interpreting and shaping the research findings.

In return for their time and contribution, we need to ensure participants benefit from their involvement. These benefits need not be monetary but could include gaining new knowledge, skills, or the satisfaction that comes from contributing to a cause they value.